“One of the main factors is the so-called” Western diet, “which is high in saturated fat and refined sugar. However, gut bacteria play an important role in regulating the effects of the diet. “
Adult-onset diabetes or type 2 diabetes is a chronic disorder that affects the way the body metabolizes glucose. Insulin resistance may also be the reason.
In both cases, sugar accumulates in the bloodstream and, if left untreated, causes damage to many major organs. Overweight and low physical activity from a Western diet can lead to type 2 diabetes.
Dysbiosis, or imbalance in the human gut flora, is generally associated with adverse effects on human health.
“Some studies suggest that dysbiosis is caused by complex changes resulting from the interaction of hundreds of different microorganisms,” said OSU’s Associate Professor of Biomedical Sciences at Carlson Veterinary Medicine. Other co-leaders, Natalia Shurgenko, said.
“But our and other studies suggest that individual members of diet-altered microbial communities can have a significant impact on the host.”
Shulzhenko and Morgun used trans-Kingdom network analysis to study host-microbial interactions under the Western diet. This allowed us to investigate whether individuals were involved in diet-induced host-induced metabolic changes.
“The analysis pointed out certain microorganisms that could affect the way people metabolize glucose and lipids,” Morgan said. “More importantly, we were able to speculate whether these effects were harmful or beneficial to the host, and we found a link between these microorganisms and obesity. I did. “
Researchers have identified four operational classification units that may affect glucose metabolism. OTU is a means of classifying bacteria based on gene sequence similarity.
The identified OTUs correspond to Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus gasseri, Romboutsia ilealis, and Ruminococcus gnavus.
“The first two microbes are considered potential” improvers “of glucose metabolism and the other two potential” worse “,” said Shulzhenko. “The overall sign is not community-level dysbiosis, but individual types of microorganisms and / or their interactions are the major players in type 2 diabetes.”
Researchers fed mice a Western diet and supplemented rodent intake with improving and deteriorating microbes. Lactobacillus promoted the health of mitochondria in the liver, and mice treated with these bacteria had a lower body fat percentage index than mice fed only a Western diet.
Scientists have found a correlation between the human obesity index and the abundance of the four bacteria. The more people who improve, the higher the obesity index, and the more people who get worse, the worse the BMI.
“We have found that R. ilealis is present in more than 80% of obese patients, suggesting that this organism may be the pathogen that is prevalent in overweight people,” Shulzhenko said. ..
Pathobiont is an organism that has a symbiotic relationship with its host, but under certain circumstances it can cause illness.
“Overall, our observations corroborate what we saw in mice fed a Western diet,” she said. “And when we examined all the metabolites, we found some metabolites that accounted for most of the probiotic effects caused by lactobacillus treatment.”
Lactic acid bacilli are microorganisms that contain various bacterial strains. Its representative is common among probiotics and is often found in many types of fermented foods and lactobacillus-enriched dairy products such as yogurt.
“Our study reveals insights into potential probiotic strains for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity and the mechanisms of their action,” Morgun said. “This generally means an opportunity to develop targeted therapies rather than trying to restore a” healthy “microbiome. “