Science & Technology

Can humans enter the black hole to study it and survive the event horizon?

A person who has fallen into a black hole and is being stretched while approaching the horizon of the black hole. Credits: Leo Rodriguez and Shanshan Rodriguez, CC BY-ND

To solve the mystery of black holes, humans should try only one. However, there are some fairly complex issues. Humans can only do this in each case. Black Hole Is supermassive and isolated, and does not expect anyone entering the black hole to report the discovery to anyone in the entire universe.

we are Both physicist Someone who studies black holes, albeit from a very safe distance.Black hole Among the most abundant astrophysical objects in our universe.. These intriguing objects are Evolution of the universe, From big Bang until today.They probably had Impact on the formation of human life in our own galaxy..

Two types of black holes

In space A vast zoo of different types of black holes..

They vary in size and can be charged, just as electrons and protons are in atoms. Some black holes actually rotate. There are two types of black holes related to our discussion. The first one does not rotate and is electrically neutral, that is, it is not positively or negatively charged and has the mass of the sun. The second type is the supermassive black hole, which is millions to billions of times more massive than the Sun.

In addition to the difference in mass between these two types of black holes, it is the distance from the center to the “event horizon” that distinguishes them. This is a measure called radial distance. The event horizon of a black hole is a point of no return. Anything that passes through this point will be swallowed by the black hole and will disappear forever from our known universe.

Horizon map of the black hole event

The distance from the center of gravity of a black hole to a place where the gravitational pull is too strong to overcome is called the event horizon. Credits: Leo and Shanshan, CC BY-ND

At the event horizon, the gravity of black holes is so strong that mechanical forces cannot overcome or counteract black holes. Even if it is light, The fastest moving thing in our universe can’t escape – hence the term “black hole”.

The radial size of the event horizon depends on the mass of each black hole and is the key to a person falling into one and surviving. For a black hole with our solar mass (one solar mass), the event horizon radius is less than two miles.

Supermassive black hole in the center of us Milky Way In contrast, the galaxy has a mass of about 4 million solar masses, with an event horizon with a radius of 7.3 million miles or 17 solar radii.

Therefore, a person who falls into a stellar-sized black hole will be much closer to the center of the black hole before it crosses the event horizon, as opposed to falling into a supermassive black hole.

This means that because the center of the black hole is close, the pulling of a person’s black hole differs by a billion times between the head and toes, depending on what is leading the free fall. In other words, when a person is dropping his foot first, the gravitational pull of their foot becomes exponentially greater than the pull of the black hole in their head as they approach the horizon of the stellar black hole event. I will.

The person will experience spaghetti and will most likely not survive when stretched into a long, thin noodle-like shape.

A person approaches the horizon of a black hole event

As a person approaches the horizon of a sun-sized black hole event, the large difference in gravitational pull between the person’s head and toes causes the person to stretch into very long noodles. Therefore, the term “spaghettification” is used. Credits: Leo and Shanshan Rodriguez, CC BY-ND

A person who has fallen into a supermassive black hole will now reach the event horizon far from the central source of gravitational attraction. In other words, the difference in gravitational pull between the head and toes is almost zero. Therefore, a person passes the event horizon unaffected, survives without being stretched into long, thin noodles, and floats painlessly across the horizon of a black hole.

A person who falls into a supermassive black hole

Those who fall into supermassive black holes will probably survive. Credits: Leo and Shanshan Rodriguez, CC BY-ND

Other considerations

Most black holes we observe in space are surrounded by disks of very hot matter. Most of them consist of gas, dust, or other objects such as stars and planets that have fallen into black holes too close to the horizon. These disks are called accretion disks and are extremely hot and turbulent. They are certainly unfriendly and make traveling to black holes very dangerous.

To enter safety, you need to find a supermassive black hole that is completely isolated and does not supply surrounding matter, gas, or even stars.

Now, if a person decides to find and adventure in an isolated supermassive black hole suitable for scientific research, everything observed or measured inside the black hole is confined to the event horizon of the black hole. I will.

Keeping in mind that the gravitational pull cannot escape beyond the event horizon, a falling person cannot send back information about the discovery beyond the horizon of the discovery. Their journeys and discoveries will be lost to the rest of the universe. But as long as they survive, they will enjoy the adventure … maybe …

Written by Associate Professor Leo Rodriguez of Grinnell College and Associate Professor Shanshan Rodriguez of Grinnell College.

Originally published conversation..conversation

Can humans enter the black hole to study it and survive the event horizon? Can humans enter the black hole to study it and survive the event horizon?

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