Diabetes is a condition that affects the body’s ability to process blood sugar levels, also known as blood sugar levels.It damages many parts of the body, such as Eyes, kidneys, liver, feet.. Eye examination is important for diabetics because it detects early signs of retinopathy that may be initially asymptomatic. Examination of the feet once or twice a year (or preferably with all doctors) is also essential to detect incurable pain and poor circulation. Early detection of diabetic foot and eye problems allows doctors to prescribe appropriate treatment when it is most effective.
What is diabetes?
Your body produces a hormone called insulin, which is essential for many jobs. One of the main functions of insulin is to transfer sugar from the blood to cells to store or use energy. When you develop diabetes, your body either cannot produce enough insulin or the pancreas cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.
The types of diabetes are:
● Type I diabetes: An autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks the pancreas, which produces insulin.
● Type II diabetes: In type II diabetes, the cells of the body are unable to respond properly to insulin. In the later stages of illness, your body may not produce enough insulin either.
● Gestational diabetes: Occurs in pregnant women. In general, various hormones work to control blood sugar levels. However, hormone levels change during pregnancy, making it difficult for the body to process blood sugar levels efficiently. This raises your blood sugar.
● Prediabetes: Occurs when the blood sugar level is higher than it should be, but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes.
If you have diabetes, it is advisable to have regular tests to make sure that you do not have any health-related diabetes problems.
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If left untreated, diabetes can cause some problems with nerves, eyes, feet, kidneys, or other organs.
Why do diabetics need a vision test?
Diabetes affects many organs in the body, including the eyes. The main concern for the eye health of diabetics is the development of a condition called diabetic retinopathy. It develops when blood vessels in the retina are damaged. The retina is the photosensitive area behind the eye.
Damage can cause blood vessels to thicken or close, blood clots to form, leaks, and microaneurysms to grow. In some cases, water can build up in the parts of the retina that are used to perform important tasks such as reading. This condition is called macular edema.
In severe cases, the retina loses blood supply and grows new but defective blood vessels. This condition is known as angiogenesis. These blood vessels can damage tissues, bleed, cause vision-impairing bleeding, and separate the retina, known as retinal detachment, from behind the eye. As the damage worsens, you can lose your eyesight.
The longer you live with diabetes, the higher your risk of developing diabetic retinopathy.
In the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy, doctors perform a vision test after dilating the eyes. Eye dilation helps doctors to clearly check the inside of your eyes.
While your eyes are still dilated, your doctor may do two more diagnostic eye exams for better results:
● Optical coherence tomography
This test helps to provide a detailed image of the eyes. Your doctor will take pictures of your eyes from different angles so you can see the details. The image helps the doctor understand if the blood vessel is damaged.
● Fluorescein angiography
With the eyes dilated, the doctor takes an image of the inside of the eye. The doctor will then inject a dye into your arm to help identify damaged blood vessels in the eye.
These tests help identify the damage caused to the eyes by diabetes. Treatment of injuries is often successful. Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy are usually invisible. This is why it is essential to have regular eye examinations to rule out possible eye-related conditions. The treatment options available for diabetic retinopathy may provide some relief, but regular eye examinations are required to check for eye problems.
Why do diabetics need a foot test?
People with diabetes are at increased risk of developing foot-related health problems. A foot examination is done to check for such problems. The most common types of diabetic foot problems include poor blood circulation to the foot and nerve damage known as neuropathy.
Neuropathy can cause the feet to tingle or paralyze. In some cases, you may even lose the sensation of your feet. When this happens, you may develop deep pains such as injuries, blisters, calluses, ulcers, and even not feel them.
Poor blood circulation to the feet can make it difficult to fight or cure an infection. Diabetes can make healing of wounds and injuries difficult. It can lead to infections and can quickly get worse.
The condition of the feet of people suffering from diabetes varies from mild to severe. The best defense for the treatment of foot conditions is prevention. However, this is not always possible.
To diagnose diabetes-related foot complications, doctors perform the following tests:
● Your doctor will inspect your skin for problems such as itching, dryness, blisters, ulcers, and octopus. Doctors also check for fungal infections between the toes and toenails.
● Neurological examination
This includes a series of tests such as:
● Monofilament test: A doctor checks the sensitivity with a soft nylon brush on the foot.
● Ping prick test: The doctor uses a pin to gently poke the sole of the foot to see if it can be felt.
● Reflexes in the ankle: The doctor uses a small mallet to tap the foot to check the reflexes.
● Tuning fork and visual test: In this test, the doctor puts the tuning fork on his foot to see if he can feel the vibrations generated by the tuning fork.
● Musculoskeletal test
Your doctor will check for deformations in the structure and shape of your foot.
● Blood vessel examination
This test is done to see if your feet have poor circulation. Doctors use image ultrasound to check blood flow in the legs.
If the condition of the foot is diagnosed and treated early, less invasive treatment is required. Severe foot conditions such as ulcers and bone deformities can be completely treated if diagnosed early.
In the case of foot ulcers, doctors may even prescribe special shoes or braces for treatment. In severe cases, surgery may be required. The surgeon cleans the affected area and removes it. Recovery after surgery can take weeks or months.
Self-management techniques can be practiced to avoid diabetic foot conditions. These include:
● Daily foot inspection
● Regularly monitor blood sugar levels
● Maintain a healthy diet
● Exercise regularly
● Take prescription drugs on a regular basis
The condition of the feet during diabetes can be severe if left untreated. This is why it is essential to have regular foot checks to look for circulatory problems and nerve damage. Seek medical attention immediately if you notice any changes in your feet due to diabetes. If diagnosed early, recovery may be better and may not require aggressive treatment options.
Diabetes affects many organs in the body, so regular eye and foot examinations are essential. It helps determine if your diabetes has affected your eyes or feet. Early diagnosis and treatment may help treat diabetic problems such as diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy.
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