Guillain-Barré Syndrome, commonly referred to GBSIs an autoimmune disease that can get worse rapidly. The first symptoms usually include weakness and tingling in the extremities.
These sensations can spread quickly and eventually paralyze the whole body. Guillain-Barré Syndrome, in the most severe cases, is a first aid measure. Many people in this condition must be hospitalized for treatment.
What is Guillain-Barré Syndrome?
In autoimmune diseases GBS, The target cell is the nerve. An autoimmune disease is a condition in which your body’s immune system accidentally attacks healthy cells. GBS It is often activated by an acute viral or bacterial infection. Immediate action is required for this situation.
What is the type of Guillain-Barré syndrome?
There are four types of syndromes:
- Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis (AIDP). This type is characterized by slow, upward-growing lower body muscle soreness.It’s the most common type GBSEspecially among the populations of Europe and North America.
- Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS). This type is characterized by paralysis that begins in the eyes. You may also experience unsteady gait. This condition is more common in Asian countries.
- Acute motor axon neuropathy (AMAN). This type is characterized by acute paralysis and loss of reflexes. However, there is no sensory loss associated with this condition. This type commonly occurs in Mexico, China, and Japan.
- Acute motor sensory axon neuropathy (AMSAN). This variant GBS Rare and serious. Affected individuals can take a very long time to recover from this type.
What are the symptoms of Guillain-Barré Syndrome?
The following are the symptoms GBS:
- A tingling sensation in the feet, hands, toes, and fingers.
- Paralysis of one or many parts of the body.
- Weakness that first appears in the lower body and gradually spreads upwards.
- It is difficult to move the muscles of the face, making it difficult to talk, chew, and swallow.
- Eye movements and definite visual impairment.
- I can’t walk steadily.
- Increased heart rate and blood pressure.
- Lower back pain.
- Loss of bladder control.
- Severe pain, especially at night.
When should I go to the doctor?
Guillain-Barré Syndrome is a very serious condition that can worsen rapidly. The sooner you start treatment, the more likely you are to recover. Seek medical attention immediately if you notice any of the following symptoms:
- A tingling and weakness that spreads rapidly throughout the body
- Shortness of breath when lying down
- Suffocate saliva.
- Breathtaking trouble.
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How is Guillain-Barré Syndrome Diagnosed?
GBS Diagnosis is based on the following key findings:
- Rapid development of muscle paralysis.
- There is no reflex.
- I can’t explain the abnormal sensations and pain in your body.
- Decreased deep tendon reflexes in weak limbs. The deep tendon reflex is the repeated contraction of muscles in response to tendon extension.
- Cerebrospinal fluid protein was elevated without increasing cell number. (Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear fluid that exists in the brain and spinal cord.)
- Abnormal nerve conduction velocity.
Diagnostic tests performed for GBS It is shown below.
Cerebrospinal fluid analysis or spinal puncture.
In this test, a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid is extracted by a procedure called lumbar puncture or spinal puncture. Fluid is removed by inserting a needle between the lumbar spine.Characteristic survey results GBS In this test, protein levels rise (> 0.55 g / L) and white blood cell counts decrease (less than 10 WBC per cubic millimeter of liquid).
The patient’s neurophysiology is assessed by performing electromyography and nerve conduction studies.This helps to eliminate many other conditions and distinguish variants of GBS..
- EMG. This is a nerve function test that reads the electrical activity of muscles. These measurements help doctors determine if weakness is the result of muscle or nerve damage.
- Nerve conduction study. This test is used to test the response of nerves and muscles to small electrical pulses.
In some cases, blood tests can help find the causative antibody. For example, the Mirror Fisher variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome is associated with an antibody commonly known as GQ1b. Finding this antibody can confirm the diagnosis of the Miller Fisher variant and make doctors particularly cautious about future requirements for intubation.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Spinal cord MRI is performed to distinguish GBS From other conditions that can cause weakness in the limbs.Characteristic discovery of GBS It is a strengthened nerve root.However, this is not specific GBSTherefore, a confirmation test may be required.
What are the risk factors for GBS?
The following are some of the risk factors for Guillain-Barré syndrome.
- Health status such as AIDS, mycoplasma pneumonia, Covid-19, Hodgkin lymphoma, Campylobacter, hepatitis, influenza and other infectious diseases.
- Childhood vaccination.
How are GBS treated?
Guillain-Barré syndrome is commonly treated with immunotherapy.There are two types of immunotherapy procedures used in GBS processing. they are:
- Plasmapheresis (Plasmapheresis). Plasma, which is the liquid part of some of the blood, is removed from the blood cells and separated. The blood cells are then returned to the body, producing more plasma to supplement what has been removed. Plasmapheresis works by removing the plasma of certain antibodies that contribute to the attack of the immune system on peripheral nerves.
- Intravenous immunoglobulin.. High doses of immunoglobulins, including healthy donor antibodies, are given to block defective antibodies produced by the immune system.
What are the complications of GBS?
So GBS It affects an important organ system of your body, the nervous system, which can cause some complications. Some of them are:
- Dyspnea.. This is probably a fatal complication. Only a few patients need mechanical help to breathe properly.
- The remaining numbness. Numbness may remain, depending on the progression and severity of the symptoms.
- Blood pressure and heart problems.
- Bladder and bowel problems. Urinary retention and slowing of defecation GBS patient.
- Blood clot. If you cannot walk properly, you may need to take anticoagulants because blood clots may be a complication.
- Pressure ulcer. GBS It can cause pressure ulcers. This complication can be easily removed by repositioning frequently.
Guillain-Barré syndrome can be effectively diagnosed and treated by seeing a doctor as soon as you notice any abnormal symptoms. Do not underestimate the symptoms as they are severe.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
- What happens with Guillain-Barré Syndrome?
To GBS, The immune system destroys the myelin sheath (protective cover of neurons) of peripheral nerves. This impairs the ability of nerve cells to send signals. This, in turn, affects the muscle’s response to brain commands, resulting in muscle wasting and weakening. When nerves are damaged, sensory function is also affected, causing unexplained tingling in the limbs.
- What Causes Guillain-Barré Syndrome?
Exact cause of GBS I’m not sure. This condition usually occurs weeks after gastrointestinal or respiratory illness and / or viral or bacterial infections. Guillain-Barré syndrome is the result of an immune system dysfunction that attacks the peripheral nervous system, thereby causing muscle atrophy, paralysis, and seizures. GBS It is not contagious or genetic.
- What should I expect after treatment?
After treatment, it may take some time to return to normal. For a limited time, you may need to use a wheelchair or pedestrian to move. To recover quickly, you can try physiotherapy to build your strength. Most people recover completely, but some can leave permanent nerve damage.