This figure is below the perceived exchange level fertility rate of 2.1. United Nations Population Division..
According to NFHS-5 (2019-21) data, the TFR in rural areas was 2.1 and only 1.6 in urban areas. In NFHS -4 (2015-16), the TFR was 2.2.
Alternative birth rates vary from country to country and depend on mortality, especially infant mortality.
In developed countries, the total fertility rate of 2.0 or higher is considered sufficient as an alternative due to the low mortality rate. 2019, European Union Infant mortality was only 3.4 per 1,000 live births.
However, in developing countries with high child mortality rates, exchange level TFRs range from 2.5 to 3.3.
According to the latest health survey, the infant mortality rate in India is 35.2 per 1,000 live births. The neonatal mortality rate is 24.9 per 1,000 live births and the under-five mortality rate is 41.9 per 1,000 live births.
The United Nations Population Department predicts that India’s population growth peaked around 1980 and has declined since then. After 2060, India’s population will begin to decline. This happens when the fertility rate falls below alternative levels over a long period of time.