Research on the microbiome in the human intestine focuses primarily on bacteria. Other microorganisms that are also present in the intestines (viruses, protists, archaea, fungi) have been largely overlooked.
New studies in mice now point to the important role of intestinal fungi (a community of molds and yeasts known as mycobiomes). These are the active interfaces between the host and its diet.
“We have shown that intestinal mycobiomes in healthy mice are formed by the dietary environment and significantly correlate with metabolic outcomes,” said Kentwillis, an assistant professor and co-author at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. The doctor of medicine says.Of the studies published in the journal Communication biology.. “Our results support the role of intestinal mycobiomes in host metabolic adaptation. These results have important implications for the design of microflora studies and the reproducibility of experimental studies of host metabolism. . “
Willis et al. Investigated the fungi in the jejunum of the mouse small intestine, where the most diverse fungal populations are located in the mouse intestine. They found that exposure to a processed diet, which is typical of a typical Western diet rich in refined carbohydrates, was significant for different weight deposition in male mice compared to mice fed a standardized diet. We have found that it leads to persistent differences in the fungal community associated with the mouse.
Researchers have found that adipose tissue in the liver, transcriptional adaptation of metabolically active tissues, and serum metabolic biomarker levels are all associated with changes in fungal community diversity and composition. Fungal mutations in two genera (Thermomyces and Saccharomyces) were most strongly associated with metabolic disorders and weight gain.
This study had an original starting point. Researchers obtained genetically identical mice from four different research animal vendors. Gut flora communities are known to vary significantly from vendor to vendor. Similarly, researchers have discovered dramatically different volatility by vendors of jejunal mycobiome, as measured by sequencing of the internal transcription spacer rRNA. At baseline, mice from one of the vendors had five endemic fungi, and mice from the other three vendors had three, two, and one endemic genera, respectively.
They also examined the community composition between kingdoms (meaning bacteria and fungi) and found significant differences in baseline bacterial communities. From this first fungal and bacterial diversity, they then measured the effects of time and dietary differences (standardized and highly processed diets) on fungal and bacterial community composition.
The researchers also addressed basic questions. Are the fungal organisms detected by next-generation sequencing coming from the diet or are they true symbiotic organisms that colonize and replicate in the gut? They compared the sequences of food pellets containing several fungi and compared the contents of the mouse jejunum to show that the jejunal fungi are true symbiotic colony formers.
Therefore, the study was led by Willis and co-author Dr. Joseph Pierre, and co-lead authors Dr. Talia S. Mimus and Dr. Kusai Al Abdullah of the University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center. Memphis, TN-We have shown that relative abundance and compositional variability of intestinal mycobiome correlates with important features of host metabolism. This lays the foundation for understanding the complex inter-kingdom interactions between bacteria and fungi and how they are collectively formed and potentially contribute to host homeostasis.
“Our results highlight the potential importance of gut mycobiomes in health, which affect humans and experimental metabolic studies,” Pierre said. “The implications of human microbiome studies, which often test only bacteria and sample only the faeces, are that mycobiome can have an unassessed effect on microbiota-related results.”
The study was conducted primarily at the University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, where Willis was an assistant professor before joining the UAB Pediatrics Neonatal Department last summer.
Translational research at UAB’s Willis Lung Lab found that such symbiotic bacteria affect neonatal physiology and disease, primarily by investigating the intestinal pulmonary axis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a lung disease in premature infants. I’m trying to figure out how it affects me.Research Communication biology Using adult animals, Willis was able to develop a model for continuing newborn research.
“The intestinal mycobiome of healthy mice is shaped by the environment and correlates with dietary metabolic outcomes,” said Willis, Pierre, Mimus, and Al-Abdullah, co-authors of the study, justin at Villanova University in Radnor. This is D. Stewart. Pennsylvania; Sydney P, Center for Health Sciences, University of Tennessee. Watts, Catrina T. White, Thomas V. Rousselle, Ankush Gosain, Amandeep Bajwa, Joan C. Han.
There was support from the National Institutes of Health grants CA253329, HL151907, DK117183 and DK125047.