Science & Technology

Mice that survive the infection pass stronger immunity

NSNew studies expanding the known effects of epigenetics in mammals show that ice recovered from infection can convey stronger immunity to future puppies.

Jorgedominges Andres, an immunoscientist at the Nijmegen Center at the University of Radboud in the Netherlands and co-author of the study, said: “And we have observed that the offspring of mice that survived the infection were more resistant to the infection.”

Cross-generational transmission of immune system-related traits has previously been seen in plants, birds, and invertebrates, including flies, beetles, and worms. To test whether a similar mechanism works in mammals, Dominguez-Andres and his colleagues put adult mice into infectious fungi or particles made from yeast, which is used to stimulate the immune system. ) Was exposed.When either parent was exposed to a real or simulated infection, the offspring showed a stronger immune response against potential pathogens, including: E. coli Bacteria, from controls where parents were not challenged by the immune system. They had low lung and liver bacteria and high levels of immune cells and inflammatory cytokines. The effect lasted even longer. Descendants of these second-generation mice also showed low post-infection bacterial loading.

“I want to know how the scientific community sees this treatise. I’m sure there are some criticisms,” says Dominges Andres. The new paper was approved for publication only after the author duplicated the first experiment conducted at the University of Athens in another laboratory at a university hospital in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Study published today Nature immunologyCan cause a hackle because it refers to Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a French naturalist who proposed to pass on the traits that the organism acquired during its lifetime to its descendants. So, for example, a giraffe that constantly stretches its neck muscles to reach high leaves passes through its long neck. Lamarckism is often constructed as a competitor to Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

The authors wrote in this treatise: “Our data suggest the existence of Lamarck’s mechanism for regulating cross-generational immunological properties that can cause evolutionary benefits.”

“This should be the subject of much more research in different locations, using mice of different strains grown under different conditions,” says Dominges-Andres. “Perhaps the results may vary depending on the configuration, but I am confident that this will be reproduced in other types of mice and other types of pathogens.”

In the meantime, he says, “I think it looks convincing.” Oded Rechavi, A neurobiologist at Tel Aviv University, studying heredity across generations and was not involved in the study. “You can see that they performed several different techniques and checked it from many different directions.”

Microbiologist Deep Shikhara Manan, who studied non-genetic transmission of immunological traits at Harvard Medical School and did not participate in the study, agreed, “It happens in insects and birds, so it’s not an exaggeration.” To do.

One of the weaknesses of this study is that the results do not clearly show how immunity enhancement is transitioning from parents to offspring.

Testing in offspring mice showed that a stronger response to infection was associated with altered patterns of gene expression in bone marrow cells of the bone marrow. this is, Trained immunityThe innate immune system develops the “memory” of pathogens and promotes future reactions.

It does not explain how mice inherited trained immunity to offspring who had never experienced direct infection.This study found that fungal infections induce changes in sperm DNA MethylationAn epigenetic process that can alter how genes are expressed in offspring.

However, Ramanan points out that female mice that recovered from the infection in this study also produced offspring with a strengthened immune system. “They say it’s through sperm, but I feel that more work is still needed on how the mother communicates it,” she says.

Dominguez-Andres states that his group is currently striving to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms involved. They are also planning new experiments to check whether the age of the mice at the time of exposure is important and whether parental infection affects the aging and inflammation of offspring mice. “And, of course, how much does this happen in humans?”

Mice that survive the infection pass stronger immunity Mice that survive the infection pass stronger immunity

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