Science & Technology

Most breeds are highly inbred and show research

Credits: Alvan Nee / Unsplash.

Dog breeds are well known for their unique characteristics, such as the short legs of the dachshund, the wrinkled face of the pug, and the spotted coat of Dalmatian.

Unfortunately, the genetics that give different varieties specific attributes are often the result of inbreeding.

recently study Published in Canine Medicine and Genetics, an international team of researchers led by the University of California, Davis, veterinary geneticist Danika Bannasch found that most dog breeds are highly inbred, with lifelong illness and medical costs. It shows that it contributes to the increase of.

“It’s amazing how important inbreeding is to health,” Bannasch said.

“Previous studies have shown that small dogs live longer than large dogs, but no one has previously reported on morbidity or the presence of the disease.

This study found that dogs that are small in size and without inbreeding are much healthier than large dogs that have a lot of inbreeding. “

Inbreeding affects health

The average inbreeding based on genetic analysis across 227 varieties is close to 25%, which is equivalent to sharing the same genetic material with the complete siblings.

These are levels that are considered to be well above safe levels for human or wildlife populations.

In humans, high levels of inbreeding (3-6%) are associated with an increased prevalence of complex illnesses and other conditions.

“Data from other species emphasize that high inbreeding in dogs is health-related, combined with a strong inbreeding predisposition to complex diseases such as cancer and autoimmune diseases.” Bannash, chair of the Donation of Genetics Maxine Adler at the University of California, Davis, said. Davis Veterinary School.

Researchers have partnered with Wisdom Health Genetics, a world leader in pet genetics, to obtain the largest sample size available for analysis.

The Wisdom Health database is the world’s largest dog DNA database and helps researchers collect data from 49,378 dogs of 227 breeds, primarily from European sources.

Some varieties are more inbreeding

So what makes a dog more inbreeding than any other dog?

Van Nash explained that it is often a combination of a small group of founders and a strong selection of specific traits of subsequent varieties. Often, it’s based on appearance, not purpose.

She was always interested in the population structure of some of these breeds, but a few years ago she was particularly interested in dogs from Danish and Swedish farmers. She was fascinated by its compact size, temperament and intelligence and decided to import it from Sweden.

Bannasch says that Danish and Swedish farm dogs have a low level of inbreeding, based on the history of a relatively large founding population of 200, and are bred for function rather than a strong artificial choice for appearance. I found that it has been done.

Farmdog is also one of the healthiest breeds, according to insurance health data for breeds collected from Agria Insurance Sweden and hosted online by the International Partnership for Dogs.

The study also found that there was a significant difference in morbidity between brachycephalic (short skull and nose) and non-brachycephalic varieties. The discovery was not unexpected, but researchers excluded short-headed varieties from the final analysis of the health effects of inbreeding.

Maintaining genetic diversity

In the end, Bannasch said he didn’t know if there was a way out of the inbreeding breed. People recognize that creating matches based solely on pedigree is misleading. Inbreeding calculators cannot be fully traced back to the genetic lineage of dogs, and that method does not improve overall high-level population inbreeding.

She said there are other steps that can be taken to maintain the genetic diversity and health of the varieties.

They include careful management of breeding populations to avoid further loss of existing genetic diversity through breeder education and monitoring of inbreeding levels enabled by direct genotyping techniques.

Inbreeding has been proposed or already practiced in several varieties and conditions as a means of increasing genetic diversity, but these effectively increase the overall diversity of varieties and therefore. You should consider whether to reduce inbreeding.

Especially in the few varieties with low inbreeding levels, every effort must be made to maintain the existing genetic diversity.

Written by Trinawood.

Most breeds are highly inbred and show research Most breeds are highly inbred and show research

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