Health

Researchers Develop New Ways to Find Cancer on the Nanometer Scale

Cancer cells during cell division.Credit: National Institutes of Health

Diagnosis and treatment of cancer can be a race against time. By the time a patient is diagnosed with the disease, the disease often progresses and spreads throughout the body, reducing the chances of survival. Early diagnosis is the key to stopping it.

In a new Concordia-led treatise published in the journal Biosensors and bioelectronics, Researchers are new Liquid biopsy How they believe they can detect cancer before it can be detected using lab-on-a-chip technology tumor Has been formed.

Liquid biopsy chips use specially designed adhesive-coated magnetic particles to attract and capture particles containing carcinogenic biomarkers. In-depth analysis can identify the type of cancer they have. Researchers say this can significantly improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

Trap messenger

The chip targets extracellular vesicles (EVs), a type of particle released by most types of organic cells. EVs (sometimes called exosomes) are very small, usually 40-200 nanometers in size. However, they contain a load of proteins, nucleic acids such as RNA, metabolites and other molecules from the parent cell, which are taken up by other cells. When EVs contain biomarkers associated with cancer and other illnesses, EVs spread toxic cargo from cell to cell.

To exclusively capture the cancer-carrying exosomes, researchers have developed a small microfluidic chip containing magnetic or gold nanoparticles coated with a synthetic polypeptide that acts as a molecular binding agent. As droplets of organic liquids such as blood, saliva, and urine pass through the chip, exosomes attach to the processed nanoparticles. After the exosomes are trapped, researchers separate them from the nanoparticles and perform proteomics and genomic analysis to determine the type of specific cancer.

“This technology can provide a very early diagnosis of cancer that will help us find a cure and improve the lives of our patients,” said Concordia, a professor of mechanical, industrial and aerospace engineering at the University of Concordia. Muchukumaran Pakkiri Sammy, the lead author of the paper, who is the director of the Department of Optics, said. Biomicrosystems Laboratory.

Alternatives to traditional chemotherapy and exploratory surgery

“Liquid biopsy avoids invasive biopsy trauma with exploratory surgery,” he adds. “You can find out all the cancer markers and the prognosis of cancer just by examining the body fluids.”

Having in-depth knowledge of a particular form of cancer’s genetic makeup would expose its weaknesses to treatment, said Anirban Ghosh, co-author and related professor of Packirisamy’s lab. “Traditional chemotherapy targets all types of cells and has serious and unpleasant side effects,” he says. “The accurate diagnosis provided to us here allows us to devise treatments that target only cancer cells.”

The lead author of the treatise is a PhD. Student Sriniva Sabatini. His educational background is electrical engineering. He states that the current interdisciplinary approach to research is challenging and rewarding, and the potential of technology can revolutionize medical diagnostics.Researchers used the breast cancer The cells in this study are looking at ways to extend their capabilities to include a wide range of disease tests.

“Perhaps one day this product will be as easy to obtain as other point-of-care devices such as home pregnancy tests,” he speculates.


Paper-based technology advances early cancer detection


For more information:
Srinivas Bathini et al, a magnetic particle-based liquid biopsy chip for extracellular vesicle isolation and characterization by gene amplification, Biosensors and bioelectronics (2021). DOI: 10.1016 / j.bios.2021.113585

Quote: Researchers have obtained cancer on the nanometer scale (October 19, 2021) obtained on October 19, 2021 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-10-cancer-nanometer-scale.html. Develop a new way to find

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