Science & Technology

Scientists have taken a big step towards stopping antimatter

One of the biggest mysteries of modern physics is Why we don’t see as much antimatter in the universe as normal matter.. A possible explanation is that antimatter is simply different from ordinary matter in an unknown but important way. To explore this possibility, scientists have trapped antimatter and studied its properties. However, accurate measurement of antimatter requires it to be almost stationary, which has been difficult in the past.Scientists working at CERN Institute in Europe Just announced They used lasers to slow the movement of antimatter, giving it unprecedented abilities.

Antimatter It is a cousin of elementary particles of ordinary matter.Its existence Predicted By British theoretical physicist Paul Dirac in 1928, and it Found By American physicist Karl Anderson in 1932. All known subatomic particles have antimatter equivalents. The electron counterpart is a positron, which in all respects is the same as an electron, but has the opposite charge. There are also antiprotons and antineutrons, Discovered in the 1950s At the particle accelerator on a hill on the hills of the University of California, Berkeley.

Matter and antimatter do not work very well. When you combine them, they annihilate each other with huge bursts of energy. At the elementary particle level, this energy is controllable, but when you combine 1 gram of antimatter with 1 gram of matter, the result is: Atomic explosion in Hiroshima.. Grams correspond to the weight of the clip.

It is this antagonistic relationship with matter that makes antimatter research difficult. When an antimatter particle comes into contact with an equivalent substance, the two disappear with a flash of energy from the elementary particle.

Scientists have been able to use a combination of electric and magnetic fields to trap antimatter particles.Antiproton has been Stored for over 1 year, Antimatter electrons have a smaller mass and are stored for a shorter period of time. In 2011, CERN researchers announced they had Store antihydrogen for 1,000 seconds or more..

Scientists were able to store and manipulate small amounts of antimatter, but could not answer why antimatter was so rare in space. According to Einstein’s famous equation E = mc2, Energy needs to be converted into the same amount of matter and antimatter. And right after the Big Bang, there was a lot of energy. Therefore, we need to see as much antimatter as our cosmic problem, but nevertheless we are not.This is imminent The unsolved mystery of modern physics..

According to Einstein’s equations and other modern antimatter theories, antimatter should be exactly the same as ordinary matter, only the charge should be reversed. Therefore, antimatter hydrogen should emit light at exactly the same wavelength, just like regular hydrogen. In fact, Experiments have been reported that accurately demonstrate this behavior This was a victory for the current theory, but it meant that no explanation was found for the preference of matter in the universe.

Due to the difficulty of storing antimatter, the emission spectrum of antihydrogen was not as accurate as comparable measurements with regular hydrogen. One of the main reasons was the inability to slow down the antihydrogen atom. Once they are generated, they continue to move fast enough to affect the accuracy of the measurement.

Therefore, researchers participating in the alpha experiment at CERN tried to slow down the antihydrogen atom. They made antiprotons at the accelerator and combined them with antimatter electrons coming from the decay of sodium-22. Then they slowed down using a laser Lowers the resulting antihydrogen.

This method is really smart. Normally, after hitting an atom with a photon of enough energy to make an electron jump from a low-energy state to a high-energy state, the atom collapses and returns to the low-energy state, resulting in exactly the same atom as before. Status. Energy is saved.

However, with laser cooling, researchers irradiate atoms with photons with energies that are just below the amount needed to jump an electron from one state to another. If the atom is stationary, no transition will occur. However, when an atom is moving, the atom moving towards the light source contributes to the kinetic energy, so the atom’s energy and energy photons are sufficient to cause the electron to jump between energy states.

The atom eventually decays and emits a photon, but the emitted photon becomes the total energy of the atomic transition and the absorbed photon becomes a slightly lower energy. After this process, the energy of the atom is slightly lower, because the energy released is slightly higher than the energy absorbed. As a result, it slows down.

When Alpha scientists aimed such a laser at an antihydrogen atom for several hours, they found that the average velocity resulting from the atom was about 10% of what was initially. The temperature of these antihydrogen atoms is about 0.012 Kelvin, which is almost absolute zero.

When researchers tested the accuracy of the light emitted by these cooled atoms, they found a four-fold improvement over previous measurements.

The use of this first laser to cool antimatter atoms will have very realistic results for studying antimatter. Already, the measurement of the properties of light emitted by antihydrogen has been improved. These techniques Their main research program, It is for studying the effect of gravity on antimatter. Common wisdom suggests that antimatter should be as sensitive to gravity as matter, but this has not yet been tested. The first results of this very interesting measurement may be available in 2022.

Laser cooling of antimatter is a tremendous technological achievement and its value will become apparent over time.

Scientists have taken a big step towards stopping antimatter

https:///sites/drdonlincoln/2021/04/01/scientists-make-big-step-towards-making-antimatter-stand-still/ Scientists have taken a big step towards stopping antimatter

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