Science & Technology

The 2021 Atlantic hurricane season was a mess

The Atlantic Hurricane season has officially ended today and statistics have been released. By NOAA Indicates that it was abnormally active.

Overall, of the 21 named storms of the season, seven were hurricanes, four of which had winds of over 111 mph and were considered major hurricanes.

The average Atlantic season has three major hurricanes.

For the record: Storm becomes the official name when the wind reaches 39 mph or more. You must reach at least 74 mph to qualify as a hurricane.

in terms of Named stormAccording to NOAA, 2021 was the third most active year on record. This year also ends for the sixth consecutive year with more than usual Atlantic hurricane activity.

Like last year, 2021 ran out of a list of 21 storm names — and it’s the first time this has happened for the second year in a row. Last year was the seventh consecutive season, and a named storm broke out prior to the official start of the hurricane season on June 1.

Hurricane Sam will churn in the Atlantic Ocean as early as October 3, 2021, as seen on the GOES-16 meteorological satellite. According to an indicator known as Cumulative Cyclone Energy (ACE), Sam was the most energetic hurricane of the 2021 season. (Credit: RAMMB / CIRA)

2021 was particularly active, according to an index called Cumulative Cyclone Energy. The ACE takes into account both the strength and duration of the storm, as well as the strongest winds, and is shown as an indicator.The above normal ACE index is Greater than 126..

According to the ACE metric, the most energetic storm of the season was the hurricane thumb seen in the satellite imagery above. It lasted 12 days as a named storm, 11 days as a hurricane, and an astonishing 7.75 days as a major hurricane. Sam ran the ACE index of 53.8, the fifth largest ACE in the Atlantic hurricane on record.

Fortunately, Sam never landed and stayed on the water for the entire long life.

Unprecedented cyclone activity

Counting all the storms in 2021, ACE “above the average throughout the season and exceeded the average season total on September 28. Eventually it was about 141% of the average (baseline climate). Use 1971-2020 as a scholarship) “. Brian McNordi writes, Researcher at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami.

According to McNordi, the 2021 ACE has exceeded 129 units for the sixth consecutive year. “This is not the satellite era, not since the record began in 1851. Four years, not to mention six years of this sustained level of tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic Ocean, is unprecedented!”

As seen in this animation of the GOES-16 meteorological satellite image, an extratropical cyclone landed in Louisiana on August 29, 2021 with a continuous wind of 150 mph. (Credit: RAMMB / CIRA)

The most devastating Atlantic hurricane in 2021 was Hurricane Aida, which landed along the Louisiana coast in late August with a sustained wind of 150 mph. It tied Aida for the fifth strongest landing hurricane that hit the continental United States on record. It was the second year in a row that a Category 4 hurricane hit Louisiana.

Ida killed at least 96 people. Damages are estimated to exceed $ 60 billion. This means that Storm ranks among the top five most expensive US hurricanes on record. (NOAA announces final accounting for Ida’s costs after the end of the year and will almost certainly be higher.)

The embankment was held, but many people were still suffering

Just 16 years after Hurricane Katrina flooded the city, Aida struck New Orleans. This time, the embankment was retained, thanks to billions of dollars invested to strengthen the defense of the city after the Katrina disaster. However, as researchers at Tufts University, Marina Lazetic and Karen Jacobsen Point out in conversation, Only part of the population was protected. “A strong similarity between Ida and Katrina still emerged,” they write. “Low-income communities and color communities remain High risk From the hurricane. “

After it stirred Louisiana, Aida wasn’t causing a riot. The wreckage traveled up the east coast of the United States and, in combination with another storm system, caused disastrous and deadly floods in parts of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York.

In just one hour, New York City was hit by more than three inches of rain, making it the rainiest time in the city’s history. The streets and subways of the city were completely flooded.

The Ida massacre and the overall damage caused by the 2021 hurricane season add to the overall record of US weather and climate disasters. The records show that between 2018 and 2020, 50 of these disasters occurred in the United States, resulting in losses of over $ 1 billion. According to NOAA.. And between 1980 and 2020, meteorological and climatic disasters cost the United States about $ 1.875 trillion.

What is the cause of the rise in hurricane activity in recent years?Part of the answer is the warm stage of the phenomenon known as Atlantic multidecadal oscillations. This warm season began in 1995 and is known to prefer stronger, longer lasting storms.

In the just-finished wild hurricane season, with unusually warm sea surface temperatures at the beginning of the season La Niña Above-average monsoon rainfall in West Africa also played an important role.

And the operation in the background was anthropogenic climate change.according to 6th Evaluation Report According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as the Earth continues to warm, the proportion of tropical cyclones that reach the world’s most intense levels (ie, equivalent to categories 4 and 5) is expected to increase. Peak winds and rainfall are also projected to increase.

The 2021 Atlantic hurricane season was a mess The 2021 Atlantic hurricane season was a mess

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