Science & Technology

These record-breaking simulations of the universe aim to solve “small” problems.

What is the mass of neutrinos? This problem has plagued physicists for decades. It’s definitely small, but it can’t be zero because it’s one of the most basic features of particles. Even so, there is plenty of room for guesswork.

Like most riddles, the solution may be found by thinking outside the box.

Physicists at the University of Tsukuba, Kyoto University, and the University of Tokyo keep this advice in mind, using innovative new methods for modeling a significant portion of the universe. Neutrino About the evolution of the universe.

that is Previously tested.. However, by applying simulations used in other areas of physics, the researchers behind this new model believe that some of the shortcomings of the previous method can be resolved.

Neutrinos are the theoretical part Standard model A confirmed member of physics since 1930, and since their experimental discoveries in the mid-1950s.

Technically, this ghost-like particle should be as massless as a photon. But more than 20 years ago, scientists discovered that not only do different shapes, or “flavors,” exist, but they also vibrate between them as they move.

For this reason, physicists are convinced that neutrinos need to have A few A kind of mass.. Even if it’s an empty beard. If the neutrino has no mass, it will move at the speed of light in a vacuum, in which case time will stop and it will not change at all.

Find the exact mass Use experimental method We set an upper limit on how thick neutrinos could potentially be, and limited it to 1 / 500,000 of a single electron. Therefore, it is no exaggeration to say that our answer lies somewhere between zip and 1 / 500,000 of the mass of the electron.

This new method may bring us a little closer to that number, but it’s certainly not ironic to reconstruct most of the universe to weigh something that is almost nonexistent.

Fortunately, the humble neutrinos lack punch, and they make up for a huge number.

From a very early age, neutrinos have been a significant amount of part of the universe and have been agitated by the raging vacuum itself. Within the first second of big Bang..

Like the static ham of the rest of the radiation, we still Cosmic microwave background radiation, Neutrally charged Background of these neutrino relics Surround us to this day.

There is no doubt that the massive relic neutrinos have had some effect on the new structure of the universe. To be precise, it’s not so easy to understand what the effect is.

A typical physical model of something like the solar system or a bundle of atoms selects several objects, defines their mutual behavior, maps them into 3D space, and calculates what happens to the computer. You can. time.

Want more objects? Get faster computers and add them.

Such “N-body” simulations are suitable for large-scale simulations. But they have their limits, especially when rubbed into physics of more quantum nature.

Quantum objects such as giant neutrinos do not regenerate with the same rules as classical particles. Since neutrinos are known to interact only with gravity and the force of weak elementary particles, it is difficult to say how different types of neutrinos stimulated the early universe.

In this new model, researchers borrowed an equation called Vlasov simulation from plasma physics. Rather than treating relic neutrinos as discrete classical objects, plasma-based equations allowed the team to describe them as if they were a continuous medium.

Run the simulation on the supercomputer with RIKEN Center for Computational Science In Japan, we have demonstrated that this program can be used on various scales, and we are now able to represent most of the observable structure of the universe fairly accurately.

“Our biggest simulation is a self-consistent combination of Vlasov simulations on a 400 trillion grid and 330 billion computations, accurately reproducing the complex dynamics of cosmic neutrinos.” To tell Koji Yoshikawa, the lead author of the research and a physicist at the University of Tokyo.

Hopefully, future work will be needed to fine-tune the details to zoom in on a more accurate picture of the mass of the relic neutrinos.Still, it’s an innovation that has already gained team recognition in the form of a finalist location in 2021. ACM Gordon Bell Award..

Their innovative new way of modeling such large structures is not a potential victory for physicists who want to know exactly how much mass a neutrino commands. It may also be applicable to plasma physics.

This study was published in SC ’21: Minutes of an international conference for high performance computing, networking, storage, and analytics..

These record-breaking simulations of the universe aim to solve “small” problems. These record-breaking simulations of the universe aim to solve “small” problems.

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