The gastrointestinal tract is made up of several parts, each with a specific function. The large intestine, known as the colon, is primarily involved in the absorption of essential fluids and the disposal of waste products excreted by the body. The cells that line the inside of the colon can become cancerous.
What is colon cancer?
The condition begins with the formation of polyps, small non-cancerous (benign) masses of cells that form inside the colon. Polyps eventually grow in size and can become cancerous. It is usually difficult to diagnose the condition very early because it is asymptomatic. This is why doctors recommend screening tests to identify and remove polyps before they become malignant (cancerous) in the elderly.
Colon cancer It can be handled in several ways. Procedures include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy in addition to immunotherapy. Colon cancer When cancerous cells contain both the colon and the rectum, they are often referred to as colorectal cancer.
Different types of colon cancer
Cancers that affect the colon and / or rectum are usually classified as follows: Adenocarcinoma.. They are found in the lining of the mucosa of the colon. Some of the other types of cancer diagnosed in this part of the gastrointestinal tract may include:-
- Carcinoid tumor – Tumors are formed by enteroendocrine cells and produce some gastric hormones to aid the digestive process.
- Lymphoma– The cells of the immune system become cancerous and affect the lymph nodes. Such cancers originate in the lymph nodes of the colon or rectum.
- sarcoma– This type of cancerous tumor is found in blood vessels, muscle layers, or other connective tissue that lines the colon wall.This is an unusual shape Colon cancer..
Related symptoms Colon cancer
- Alternative diarrhea or constipation with changes in bowel habits
- Rectal bleeding (this is apparent if the stool is regularly bloody)
- Discomfort due to abdominal pain or gas generation. It may be related to bloating.
- I feel dissatisfied with defecation
- Weakness and malaise
- Steadily lose weight for no apparent reason
However, most patients are asymptomatic in the early stages. Indications vary widely, depending on the size and location of the tumor.
The right time to see a doctor on suspicion of colorectal cancer
Don’t wait endlessly in the hope that your symptoms will disappear spontaneously. Instead, visit a qualified and experienced doctor for a diagnosis.Medical professionals always advise screening Colon cancer. It is usually done for patients over the age of 50, but early screening is recommended based on family history and current medical condition.
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What is the cause of Colon cancer?
It is difficult to identify the cause Colon cancer. The exact reason remains unknown. However, research has shown that DNA mutations are responsible for cancerous changes that affect the normal functioning of the body.
Development risk factors Colon cancer
- Aging– People over the age of 50 are at increased risk of developing this type of cancer
- Race– Members of African-American race have been pointed out to be more susceptible Colon cancer
- Medical history– Polyps are at risk of developing colon / colorectal cancer. Chronic inflammatory diseases of the colon, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, can increase the risk of colon cancer.
- A hereditary syndrome that increases the risk of colon cancer. Common familial syndromes that increase the risk of colon cancer are familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), also known as Lynch syndrome and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).
- Family history of colon cancer. Having a family member who has had colorectal cancer makes them more likely to get colorectal cancer. The risk is high if multiple families have colon or rectal cancer.
- High fat diet, low fiber ,. Both colon and rectal cancers may be associated with a diet high in fat and calories and low in fiber. Research in this area has yielded various results. Certain research studies have found that people who eat a diet high in processed or lean meats are at increased risk of colon cancer.
- Life that tends to sit down. People who are inactive are more likely to develop colon cancer.You can reduce your risk by doing regular exercise / physical activity
- Diabetes – People with diabetes are at increased risk of developing Colon cancer.
- obesity– Overweight people are at greater risk.
Colorectal Cancer Treatment Options
Cancer specialists (oncologists) diagnose cancer cells in the colon with a variety of tests and proceed with treatment based on their stage.
If the colon cancer is very small, your doctor may suggest minimally invasive surgery, such as endoscopic resection, laparoscopy, or polypectomy during colonoscopy.
If the cancer has grown in or through the colon, your doctor may recommend the following:
- Surgery to create a method for waste disposal from your body. If you are unable to reconnect a healthy part of the rectum or colon, you may need an ostomy to make an opening in the abdomen from the remaining part of the intestine and drain the stool into a bag that fits tightly in the opening.This can be temporary or permanent
- Partial colon resection. In this procedure, the surgeon removes the part of the colon that has the cancer, along with the edges of normal tissue on both sides of the cancer. Surgeons can often reconnect healthy parts of the colon or rectum.
- Removal of lymph nodes. During surgery for colon cancer, nearby lymph nodes are also removed and tested for cancer.
- In very advanced cancerSurgery is not done to cure the cancer, but to relieve signs and symptoms such as obstruction, bleeding, and pain. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can also be used. Targeted drug treatment and immunotherapy are also used.
How to prevent colon cancer?
Some precautions are:
- Screening test – We recommend that you choose screening as soon as you reach the age of 50. If you or someone in your family is diagnosed with colorectal or colorectal cancer, don’t forget to screen early. Screening tests allow doctors to find polyps on the lining of the colon or rectum. They need to be surgically removed to avoid future colon cancers.
Colon endoscopy The method used to screen for colon cancer. This method uses a long, flexible, slim tube attached to a video camera and monitor to view the entire colon and rectum. If a suspicious area is found, the doctor may pass a surgical instrument through this tube, take a tissue sample (biopsy) for analysis, and remove the polyp.
- Healthy diet– Almost all doctors recommend eating a healthy and balanced diet consisting of green vegetables, fresh fruits and whole grains. Proper nutrition can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Be careful not to eat lean meat every meal or rely solely on processed foods to satisfy your hunger.
- Maintain weight– Obesity is believed to be the cause of many illnesses. You need to maintain an optimal weight for your height and bone structure. Check your BMR and consult an expert to find the best solution. Try to combine a balanced diet and exercise to lose excess weight.
- Physical activity – Stay agile and active in the morning by taking a walk or jogging. Occasionally you can swim a few laps or cycle to the nearest market. If you have difficulty climbing the stairs, don’t forget to adjust your pace indoors for 5-20 minutes at a stretch.This will greatly help you to be physically healthy and reduce the risk of development Colon cancer..
- Quit smoking and alcohol– Have a hard time and stop smoking now!Remember that smoking is associated with several health conditions, including: Colon cancer.. Limit alcohol intake to prevent colon cancer. Seek professional help if necessary, but be sure to abandon all kinds of addictive habits.
Colon cancer It can begin as a polyp in the colon or non-cancerous growth. Regular screening helps to diagnose the condition early. This will help you heal completely.
Frequently Asked Questions
- Why do I need a colonoscopy?
Colon endoscopy is a screening procedure that helps doctors detect cancerous growth early. The presence of polyps in the colon is thought to be a precursor to cancer and can be easily removed. This helps prevent colon cancer effectively.
- Is Colorectal Cancer Common?
This is the fourth most common form of cancer in the United States. The incidence is the same for men and women. In India, the incidence of colorectal cancer is lower than in Western countries. However, it is the seventh most common cancer in India. Increased due to sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, obesity, excessive alcohol and smoking.
- What is a polyp?
Polyps resemble mushrooms and are found on the inner wall of the colon during the screening process. Polyps are considered precancerous and are usually removed because the cells become malignant if left untreated.
- Can my doctor treat colon cancer?
not really! Specialized treatment and intervention by a qualified oncologist or other gastrointestinal specialist is required. You need to be treated by a group of doctors, ie:-
Gastroenterologist-A gastroenterologist who also performs colonoscopy to diagnose the condition. Cancer specialists treat cancer through surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
- Do I Need Immunotherapy to Treat Colon Cancer?
Immunotherapy is a drug treatment that uses the immune system to fight cancer. Answer cells produce proteins that prevent the immune system cells from recognizing cancer cells, so the immune system that fights diseases in the body may not attack the cancer. Immunotherapy works by interfering with this process. Immunotherapy is generally reserved for advanced colon cancer. Your doctor may test your cancer cells to see if they may respond to this treatment.
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