What is an ovary? | Types of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women. There are some rare cases of young women who develop ovarian cancer, but it is usually found in menopausal women (50 years or older).

What is an ovary?

The female reproductive system has two sets of ovaries on either side of the uterus. The ovaries have eggs, or eggs, that are released during each menstrual cycle for fertilization. One egg is released per cycle. The ovaries are almond-sized and are also involved in the production and release of the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

What Causes Ovarian Cancer?

Unfortunately, there are no specific factors or causes that scientists can point out as the cause of ovarian cancer. However, there are certain factors that have been shown to contribute to the development of cancer.

When any cell becomes cancerous, it means that the DNA of that cell is abnormal. This error or mutation causes the cells to grow and grow rapidly, causing tumors. The tumor then collapses and spreads to other parts of the body. Tumor cells multiply, but healthy cells die.

What are the symptoms of ovarian cancer?

Symptoms of ovarian cancer It is easy to overlook because it can be mistaken for other conditions. However, early detection is very important for successful treatment, so it is important to identify the symptoms.Early Symptoms of ovarian cancer include:

  • Hard to eat
  • Increased need for urination
  • Increased pollakiuria
  • Unusual bloating
  • Abnormal feeling of fullness after eating

Some others Symptoms of ovarian cancer You need to make sure that:

  • Extreme fatigue or malaise
  • Back pain
  • Stomach upset
  • constipation
  • Pain during sex
  • Women like irregular menstrual changes, irregular bleeding and heavier bleeding
  • Swelling of the abdomen (abdomen) with weight loss

What is the type of ovarian cancer?

The type of ovarian cancer is defined by what type of cell it originates from. There are three types of ovarian cancer. These include:

  • Epithelium – This is one of the most common forms of ovarian cancer. It begins with the tissue that covers the ovaries. About 90% of all ovarian cancer patients have this type of cancer.
  • Germ cells – These cells are where the eggs are produced. This is a rare form of ovarian cancer, mainly found in young women.
  • Interstitium – These cells are involved in the production of hormones. Stromal cell tumors make up about 7% of all ovarian tumors.

What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer?

The risk factors for developing ovarian cancer are:

  • Family history – Women who have two or more relatives with ovarian cancer are at increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.
  • Senior citizens – Ovarian cancer is common in women over the age of 50.
  • Genetic mutation – Certain hereditary genetic mutations may increase the risk of ovarian cancer. These mutations also increase the risk of breast cancer.
  • Estrogen HRT – Long-term hormone replacement therapy, especially in large doses of estrogen, may increase the risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Age of menstruation and menopause – Women who start menstruating at an earlier age or menopause at an older age are at higher risk.

How is ovarian cancer diagnosed?

Unfortunately, there are no regular screening tests for ovarian cancer. The ovaries are deep in the abdomen, so you and your doctor can’t feel the tumor. Therefore, it is imperative to screen yourself for symptoms of ovarian cancer and consult your doctor if you have problems with recurrence.

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Your doctor recommends that you do a pelvic examination to see if there are any abnormalities. When the tumor grows, you can feel pressure on the bladder and rectum. Some other tests your doctor may ask for include:

  • Ultrasound of the abdomen and pelvis: This imaging test allows the doctor to see if the ovaries are growing. However, this test cannot determine if the tumor is cancerous.
  • Transvaginal ultrasound: This test is very similar to a pelvic ultrasonography. Use sound waves to detect genital tumors.
  • Abdominal CT scan: Dyes are used to provide images of abdominal organs such as the genitals and ovaries.
  • Blood test: Blood tests may be done to measure the level of cancer antigen 125, which is a biomarker for cancer.
  • biopsy: If a tumor or irregular growth is detected, a small sample may be taken from it to determine if it is cancerous.

It is important to note that only a biopsy can tell if you have ovarian cancer.

What is the stage of ovarian cancer?

The stage of the cancer is an indicator of how far the cancer has progressed in the body. There are four main stages of ovarian cancer.

Stage 1

  • Stage 1A – Cancer is limited to a single ovary.
  • Stage 1B – Cancer has spread to both ovaries.
  • Stage 1C – Cancer cells are on the outside of the ovaries.

Stage 2

At this stage, the cancer would have spread to other organs in the pelvic area.

  • Stage 2A – Cancer has spread to the fallopian tubes and uterus.
  • Stage 2B-The cancer has spread to the bladder and rectum.

Stage 3

  • Stage 3A – Cancer has spread to the lining of the abdomen and lymph nodes in the abdomen
  • Stage 3B – Visible cancer cells are less than 2 centimeters.
  • Stage 3C–3/4 inch cancer cells are found outside the spleen and liver.

Stage 4

  • Stage 4A – Cancer cells are found in the fluid around the lungs.
  • Stage 4B – Cancer cells are found in the spleen and liver, and sometimes in the brain.

How is ovarian cancer treated?

Treatment of ovarian cancer depends on the type and stage of the patient’s cancer. Most women diagnosed with ovarian cancer require some surgery to remove the tumor as part of their treatment plan.


Surgical treatment for ovarian cancer is highly dependent on the type of cancer. For epithelial ovarian cancer, cancer staging is very important to treatment planning. Most women with epithelial ovarian cancer require a hysterectomy with removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries. However, if the cancer is detected early enough and the woman is of childbearing age, the doctor may be able to remove the tumor without removing the genitals.

An important aspect of surgical treatment for ovarian cancer is weight loss. This refers to the elimination of all cancerous growths over 1 cm in size. This will significantly improve the prognosis of the patient.

Surgical treatment of stromal and embryonic ovarian cancers focuses on the removal of cancerous tumors. Your doctor will rely on reliable imaging tests to detect the location and extent of the cancerous tumor.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-ray particles to destroy cancer cells. However, this treatment is not very effective against ovarian cancer and is usually not recommended for most patients.

chemical treatment

Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with drugs. It is usually used to destroy cancer cells that remain after surgery, or to shrink a particularly large cancerous tumor for easier removal during surgery.


Unfortunately, most cases of ovarian cancer are only detected when they spread to the pelvis and abdomen. Therefore, it is essential to make sure that: Symptoms of ovarian cancer, Get the necessary and timely medical treatment to avoid complications.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

  1. Can I die of ovarian cancer?

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women. Your outlook and prognosis depend on how quickly the cancer is detected. The short-term prognosis for patients with ovarian cancer is very good, and regular chemotherapy can significantly prolong even long-term survival.

  1. What are the first signs of ovarian cancer?

Abnormal bloating and distension are one of the first few signs of ovarian cancer. If you or your loved one is worried about ovarian cancer, talk to your doctor about your concerns. The disease should be detected earlier than later forms.

  1. How fast does ovarian cancer spread?

Ovarian cancer is one of the more aggressive cancers. It spreads faster than breast cancer. It’s only a matter of months, as the cancer progresses from one stage to the next.

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