What is Crohn’s disease?Causes and Symptoms and Risk Factors


Crohn’s disease is a condition that causes inflammation of parts of the digestive system. In most cases, it affects the small intestine and colon. However, any part of the digestive system can be susceptible to Crohn’s disease. There is no cure for this condition yet, but proper treatment and medication are available. Symptoms of Crohn’s disease..

What is Crohn’s disease?

Crohn’s disease, a type of inflammatory bowel disease, causes inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, causing severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, malaise, and weight loss. The inflamed area of ​​the gastrointestinal tract can be continuous or partial.

Crohn’s disease is painful and can be debilitating. In some cases, inflammation spreads to deeper layers of the digestive tract. If left untreated, it can cause serious complications in the future.

Crohn’s disease is divided into five types based on the affected part of the gastrointestinal tract.

  • Enteritis – affects the last part of the colon and small intestine (the terminal ileum).
  • Enteritis – Affects the ileum.
  • Granulomatous colitis – affects the colon.
  • Gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease – affects the first part of the stomach and small intestine (duodenum).
  • Enteritis – Causes inflammation in a small area of ​​the upper half of the small intestine (jejunum).

What Causes Crohn’s Disease?

Doctors have yet to find the exact cause of Crohn’s disease. Previously, it was suspected to be due to diet and stress. But now, doctors believe that they only exacerbate the symptoms of Crohn’s disease and do not cause it. Other factors, such as heredity and weakened immunity, can cause Crohn’s disease.

What are the symptoms of Crohn’s disease?

Symptoms of Crohn’s disease It depends on where the disease occurs and how severe it is. Symptoms usually begin gradually. However, symptoms may appear without warning. You may also notice when the symptoms disappear spontaneously.

general Symptoms of Crohn’s disease include:

  • Abdominal pain and cramps
  • Severe diarrhea
  • Bloody stool
  • heat
  • Malaise
  • stomatitis
  • Anorexia
  • Weight loss
  • Drainage or pain near the anus

Strict Symptoms of Crohn’s disease include:

  • Inflamed skin, joints, eyes
  • Anemia-Iron deficiency
  • Kidney stone
  • Inflamed liver and bile ducts
  • Delayed growth or sexual development of a child

Ulcerative colitis, another inflammatory bowel disease, also causes inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. However, ulcerative colitis affects the colon and rectum. Both illnesses show similar symptoms. Some of the various symptoms caused by ulcerative colitis are:

  • Rectal pain
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Urgency of defecation
  • I can’t defecate despite the urgency

Talk to your doctor right away if you experience any of these symptoms. Early diagnosis and proper treatment help prevent future risks and complications.

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When should I go to the doctor?

In addition to the above Symptoms of Crohn’s diseaseIf you notice any of the following symptoms, see a doctor immediately.

  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fever of unknown cause lasting more than 2 days
  • Diarrhea that does not respond to over-the-counter drugs

Are there risk factors associated with Crohn’s disease?

The risk factors for Crohn’s disease are:

Crohn’s disease can occur in people of all ages. But you are more likely to develop it when you are young. In the majority of cases of Crohn’s disease, people are diagnosed with it under the age of 30.

Having a family history increases the risk of developing Crohn’s disease. One in five people diagnosed with Crohn’s disease already has a family member with Crohn’s disease.

Smoking is one of the controllable risk factors for Crohn’s disease. Smoking can also lead to other illnesses.

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug..

Drugs such as ibuprofen, diclofenac sodium, naproxen sodium cause inflammation and Symptoms of Crohn’s disease Even worse.

What complications can occur if Crohn’s disease is left untreated?

Crohn’s disease can cause two types of complications.

  • Local Complications – Affects the intestines only.
  • Systemic Complications – Also known as extraintestinal complications, they affect the whole body.

Local complications include:

These are the narrow, thick areas of the intestine caused by inflammation. The stenosis can be mild or severe, depending on the amount of intestine obstructed.

Painful tears in the anal lining. It can cause rectal bleeding during defecation.

Systemic complications include:

Skin problems due to systemic complications are:

  • Oral ulcer: Appears between the gums and lower lip.
  • Erythema nodosum: Appears in the form of small, red, soft nodules on the arms, ankles, or glow.
  • Skin tag: Appears in the form of flaps around the anal area.

When Crohn’s disease damages the intestines, the body is unable to absorb calcium, which can lead to vitamin D deficiency.

How is Crohn’s disease diagnosed?

Your doctor may perform a series of tests to distinguish Crohn’s disease from other diseases such as ulcerative colitis. Includes various diagnostic tests and procedures:

Lab test

Your doctor may do a blood test to check for signs of anemia.

Your doctor may ask you to provide a sample of your stool to check for microbes such as blood and parasites.


This procedure, also known as sigmoidoscopy, gives the doctor a clear view of the large intestine. If desired, the doctor can also take a tissue sample for laboratory analysis.

CT enteritis

There may be CT scans, a special x-ray method that provides more detailed information than traditional x-rays. A CT scan test examines the entire intestine and the tissues outside the intestine. CT enterography is a separate CT scan that provides a better image of the small intestine. CT enterography has replaced barium x-rays in many hospitals.

Balloon-assisted enteroscopy: This examination includes a scope that is used in combination with a device called an overtube.This helps doctors further examine the small intestine, which is beyond the reach of standard endoscopes.

Capsule endoscopy

This procedure provides a small pill-sized camera for the doctor to swallow. Taking a picture of the small intestine helps doctors look for signs of Crohn’s disease.

Can Crohn’s disease be treated?

Currently, there is no cure for Crohn’s disease.The goal of medication and treatment is to reduce and relieve inflammation Symptoms of Crohn’s disease..

The drugs that may help with Crohn’s disease are:

The anti-inflammatory drugs are:

  • Corticosteroids: Medications such as prednisone and budesonide may help reduce inflammation.
  • Oral 5-aminosalicylate: Drugs such as sulfasalazine, including mesalamine and sulfa drugs, help relieve inflammation. These drugs have proven to be effective in the past, but are now of limited help.
  • Immune system suppressor..

These drugs not only suppress inflammation, but also target the immune system, which produces substances that cause inflammation.

  • Azathioprine and Mercaptopurine: These drugs are the most used immune system suppressors. Your doctor may ask you to have a blood test on a regular basis to look for side effects.
  • Methotrexate: These drugs are recommended for patients who do not respond to other treatment options.

Antibiotics help eliminate fistulas and abscesses caused by inflammation. Sometimes antibiotics also help heal them. Most prescription antibiotics include metronidazole and ciprofloxacin.

If the drug doesn’t work, your doctor may recommend surgery. More than half of patients with Crohn’s disease undergo at least one surgical procedure. During surgery, the surgeon removes the inflamed and damaged part of the gastrointestinal tract and connects the healthier part. However, the benefits of surgery are temporary. Inflammation usually returns near the reconnected area.


Crohn’s disease has no cure yet and early diagnosis may help alleviate with appropriate treatment options Symptoms of Crohn’s disease.. Seek medical attention as soon as possible if you notice any symptoms or signs of illness.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

1. How serious is Crohn’s disease?

Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. As unknown as heart disease and cancer, it is a serious illness that can consume as much life as a person.

2. What is the life expectancy of a person with Crohn’s disease?

Crohn’s disease is usually diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 35. It does not shorten life expectancy. In most cases, people with Crohn’s disease have a fulfilling life.

3. Can Crohn’s disease worsen with age?

Crohn’s disease is a chronic disease. It can also be progressive. This means that an individual’s symptoms can worsen over time. Long-term inflammation can damage the digestive tract and exacerbate symptoms.

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